profanity n : vulgar or irreverent speech or action
quality of being profane
Profanity can be a word, expression, gesture, or other social behavior which is socially constructed or interpreted as insulting, rude or vulgar, or desecrating or showing disrespect toward an object of religious veneration. Other words commonly used to describe profane language or its use include: cuss, curse, derogatory language, swearing, expletive, oath, bad word, dirty word, strong language, irreverent language, obscene language, and blasphemous language. In many cultures it is less profane for an adult to curse than it is for a child, who may be reprimanded for cursing.
Types of swearingSteven Pinker's book The Stuff of Thought breaks profanity down into five categories:
- Dysphemistic swearing - Exact opposite of euphemism. Forces listener to think about negative matter. Using the wrong euphemism has a dysphemistic effect.
- Abusive swearing - for abuse or intimidation or insulting of others
- Idiomatic swearing - swearing without really referring to the matter.. just using the words to arouse interest, to be showing off, and express to peers that the setting is informal.
- Emphatic swearing - to emphasise something with swearing.
- Cathartic swearing - when something bad happens like coffee spilling, people curse. One evolutionary theory of it is that its meant to tell the audience that you're undergoing a negative emotion.
UsageA profanity will have an original meaning (which may change across time and language) which in itself may give some cause for offense. Additionally, many profanities will have applied meanings of their own, usually associated to their context and which therefore may vary significantly depending upon the intended purpose of the word in the sentence. For example, "fuck", a common (often considered strong) profanity in English, is a verb for the act of sexual intercourse and may be used literally in this sense. It is also used in the context of an exclamation ("Fucking hell!") or to refer to acts of violence ("He really fucked that guy up."), or to an error ("You fucked up again, you're fired."). It can also be used to add emphasis to a sentence.
The diversity of these profanities and their multiple connotations is pointed out to attempted humorous effect in Troy Duffy's film The Boondock Saints, in which one character discovers a room full of assassinated Russian Mobsters and uses the word "fuck" as an adjective, a verb and a noun in one sentence.
Rocco: Fucking... What the fuck. Who the fuck fucked this fucking... How did you two fucking fucks... [shouts] Rocco: fuck! Connor: Well, that certainly illustrates the diversity of the word.
The degree to which a profanity is offensive relies upon how the use of the word affects an individual. Some will consider the original meaning of a word (for example, the sexual act) to be offensive or a subject not fit for polite conversation (cf Ephesians 5:3 "..it is not right that any matters of sexual immorality or indecency or greed should even be mentioned among you. Nor is it fitting for you to use language which is obscene, profane or vulgar.") while others will have no objection to these subject matters. Some will feel that certain words, having an established social taboo are simply offensive, regardless of any context; others will find profanities offensive mainly when used in a way deliberately intended to offend.
Furthermore, some may be in the habit of using profanity in order to seem cool. Thus, insults can even be used as terms of endearment.
A 2007 peer reviewed study by the University of East Anglia found that banning profanity in the workplace and reprimanding staff for using it could have a negative effect on morale and motivation. According to the study, while swearing in front of senior staff or customers should be seriously discouraged or banned, in other circumstances it helped foster solidarity among employees and relieved frustration, stress or other feelings.
Finally, profanities may cause offense, regardless of context, if they have some religious meaning which may cause their use to offend those who follow a particular religion. The original meaning of the term was restricted to blasphemy, sacrilege or saying the Abrahamic God's name (or an identifier such as Lord or God) in vain. Such religious profanity is referred to as blasphemy.
As the concept of profanity has been extended to include expressions with scatological, derogatory, racist, or sexual interpretations, the broader concept of "politically incorrect" language has emerged, with religious meaning playing a varying role, and the more vague and inclusive interpretation blurring the distinction between categories of offensiveness. This modern concept of profanity has evolved differently in different cultures and languages. For example, many profanities in Canadian French are a corruption of religious terminology (the sacres), while many English obscenities tend to refer to sexuality or scatology. A term that functions as a profanity in one language may often lack any profane quality when translated into another language.
Western historyTerms of profanity have historically been taboo words. Some words that were originally considered profane have become much less offensive with the increasing secularity of society. Others, primarily racial or ethnic epithets, can be considered part of hate speech and are now considered more profane than they once were.
William Shakespeare hinted at the word cunt in Hamlet, Twelfth Night and Henry V: Hamlet makes reference to "country matters" when he tries to lay his head in Ophelia's lap; Malvolio has the salacious line (although the term cut was an accepted euphemism for vagina in the early sixteenth century) "These be her very c's, her u's, and her t's, and thus she makes her great p's"; and the French Princess Katherine is amused by the word gown for its similarity to the French con. Interestingly, the word cunt, while retaining its original meaning in America, has changed in meaning somewhat in Great Britain in the past thirty years. Where American usage of the word mostly refers to either female anatomy or (in extreme cases) an ill-tempered woman, cunt in the UK has attained the status of a gender-neutral insult.
In the U.S. today, terminology considered to be racist is often seen as more offensive than sexual or scatological terminology; this is most clearly shown in the attention given to use of the word nigger, now effectively banned in American public discourse, although many African-Americans use the word nigga as a casual reference, and in certain social groups, nigger as a casual reference to black people is still in frequent use. Some mistakenly associate the unrelated word niggardly (meaning "stingy") with 'nigger." As with other types of profanity, context is very important; thus, Americans of African descent might use 'nigger' in informal situations among themselves, without being considered offensive.Words such as faggot and fag, though incidentally sexual in nature, are considered highly offensive and derogatory toward gay people, yet have undergone similar changes to nigga when being used by the gay community. The most famous example of this is prominent Sex Advice Columnist Dan Savage originally having his readers send letters with the salutation "Hey Faggot".
Many of the words now considered most 'profane' are held to be so because they were created to insult and disparage a particular group (see pejorative terms). Some of the targets of these words have however attempted to reclaim them and reduce their power as insults. Other ethnic slurs like coon, porchmonkey, tar baby, darkie (African-American), dottie (Indian/Pakistani) , chink, gook (Asian), beaner, wetback, spick (Hispanic-American), guinea, wop, dago (Italian), honky, gringo, cracker (whites), heeb (Jewish), kraut (German -- used especially during World War II), sand nigger, raghead, towelhead (Sikh, or Arab in the US); and pejoratives like fattie, retard, and redneck or hillbilly aren't entirely profane at all times, but can be considered very offensive when used in the company of certain people, and not socially acceptable in polite settings or social situations.
The offensiveness or perceived intensity or vulgarity of the various profanities can change over time, with certain words becoming more or less offensive as time goes on. For example, in modern times the word piss is usually considered mildly vulgar and somewhat impolite, whereas the King James Bible unblushingly employs it where modern translators would prefer the word urine (2 Kings 18:27; Isa 36:12) or urinate (1 Sam 25:22, 25:34; 1 Kings 14:10, 16:11, 21:21; 2 Kings 9:8). The word cunt has seen a similar evolution; its ancestor—queynte—was not considered vulgar at all, but the word is now considered among the most offensive in the English language.
Profanity as blasphemyThe original meaning of the term was restricted to blasphemy, sacrilege or saying the Abrahamic God's name (or an identifier such as "Lord" or "God") in vain. Profanity represented secular indifference to religion or religious figures, while blasphemy was a more offensive attack on religion and religious figures, and religious people considered it sinful.
Profanities in the original meaning of blasphemous profanity are part of the ancient tradition of the comic cults, which laughed and scoffed at the deity. An example from Gargantua and Pantagruel is "Christ, look ye, its Mere de ... merde ... shit, Mother of God."
The relative severity of various British profanities, as perceived by the public, was studied on behalf of the British Broadcasting Standards Commission, Independent Television Commission, BBC and Advertising Standards Authority; the results of this jointly commissioned research were published in December 2000 in a paper called "Delete Expletives". It listed the profanities in order of decreasing severity, the top ten being cunt, motherfucker, fuck, wanker, nigger, bastard, prick, bollocks, arsehole, and paki in that order. About 83% of respondents regarded cunt as "very severe"; 16% thought the same about shit and 10% about crap. Only about 1% thought cunt was "not swearing"; 9% thought the same about shit and 32% of crap.
International auxiliary languages are often assumed to have little or no profanity, but this varies from one language to another. The basic criterion for inclusion in Interlingua is widespread international use, and this can be as true of a profanity as any other word or phrase. Thus, expressions such as cunno (cunt), mierda (shit), and pipi (pee-pee) may be used in Interlingua. Culo (ass or butt) and its derivative incular (to butt-fuck) are also Interlingua expressions. Fottar (to fuck) is used much as in English, e.g., "Fotta te!" ("Fuck you!") or "Mi auto es fottate!" ("My car is fucked!").
Profanity in different languages and religionsFor reasons of differing cultural, linguistic and historical backgrounds, the profanities of different languages place emphasis on different subject matter. Here is a list showing the main emphases for some languages:
- Arabic: sacrilege/blasphemy, excrement, sex, homosexuality, gender identity, insulting female family members, animals, and reproductive organs.
- Chinese: sex, insults to family members, cursing (e.g., the Cantonese "Hum Gah Chan", which literally means "Hope Your Entire Family Dies").
- Czech: equating people with animals (ox, cow), reproductive organs, sex, prostitution, blasphemy
- Dravidian languages: Cursing (saavugiraaki implies that the recipient is about to die), questioning one's parentage.
- Dutch: reproductive organs, excrement, homosexuality, equating people with animals (most notably pig, dog and cow), diseases, racial and ethnic hatred, prostitution, mental illness and blasphemy supplemented with English swearwords.
- English: sex, excrement, homosexuality, religion, incest, bigotry, racial and ethnic hatred, prostitution, reproductive organs, and questioning one's parentage.
- French: prostitution, homosexuality, excrement, racial and ethnic hatred.
- German: Equating people with animals, (eg., Schweinehund), sex, excrement, Nazi terms.
- Indo-Aryan languages: insults to family members (especially incest).
- Indonesian: sex, reproductive organs, excrement, equating people with animals (most notably dog and monkey), racial.
- Interlingua: sex, excrement, religion.
- Irish: religion (damnation, blasphemy), some sexual terms, some excrement.
- Italian: blasphemy, some sexual terms, personal insults (e.g. "your mother").
- Japanese: sex, violations of politeness protocols, discriminatory language, mocking status,[insulting intelligence, suggesting death of another.
- Korean: Impolite responses to people (especially family and authority), references to animals, sexual terms.
- Hebrew: Yiddish loanwords having sexual meaning, borrowed Arabic, sex, prostitution.
- Norwegian: Predominantly religion and blasphemy in the south, more genitals and sexual acts with animals in the north.
- Polish: sex, prostitution, homosexuality, diseases, excrement, comparing people to pigs and dogs.
- Portuguese: sex, homosexuality, prostitution, reproductive organs, excrement.
- Russian: sex and foul language, excrement, mental illness, equating people with animals, ethnic hatred.
- Scots Gaelic: sex, excrement, religion, English-Scottish tensions.
- Spanish: religion, incest, homosexuality, excrement, prostitution.
- Swedish: sex, excrement, homosexuality, blasphemy, prostitution use of English.
- Welsh: sex, excrement, English-Welsh tensions.
Severity of profanity types in European languages
In European languages the three basic types of profanity (religious, sexual, and excretory) have differing levels of severity. The type generally considered worst is listed first, down to the type generally considered least offensive.
- French, Italian, Provencal: religious> sexual> excretory
- Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Polish: sexual> religious> excretory
- English: sexual> excretory> religious
- Welsh, Swedish: excretory> religious> sexual
Books containing famous uses of profanity
- Ulysses by James Joyce
- The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger
- Glengarry Glen Ross by David Mamet
- Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
- Various books by François Rabelais
- Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut
- Polish book "Szewcy" (Shoemakers) by S. I. Witkiewicz
- Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence (1928)
- Maniac Magee by Jerry Spinelli (1990)
- Hyperion by Dan Simmons(1989) in The Poet's Tale
Bibliography - sources
- Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World . Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.
- Almond, Ian Derrida and the Secret of the Non-Secret: On Respiritualising the Profane Literature and Theology 2003 17(4):457-471; doi:10.1093/litthe/17.4.457
profanity in Arabic: كلمات نابية
profanity in Czech: Sprosté slovo
profanity in Danish: Bandeord
profanity in German: Schimpfwort
profanity in Spanish: Palabrota
profanity in Esperanto: Sakro
profanity in Persian: دشنامگویی
profanity in French: Juron
profanity in Scottish Gaelic: Gràisgealachd
profanity in Icelandic: Blótsyrði
profanity in Italian: Turpiloquio
profanity in Hebrew: ניבול פה
profanity in Macedonian: Безобразност
profanity in Dutch: Vloek (godslastering)
profanity in Norwegian: Banneord
profanity in Polish: Wulgaryzm
profanity in Portuguese: Palavras de baixo calão
profanity in Russian: Обсценная лексика
profanity in Simple English: Profanity
profanity in Finnish: Kirosana
profanity in Swedish: Svordom
profanity in Thai: คำหยาบ
profanity in Ukrainian: Ненормативна лексика
profanity in Contenese: 粗口
profanity in Chinese: 脏话
bad language, billingsgate, blasphemousness, blasphemy, blue language, colorful language, cursing, cussing, desecration, dirty language, dirty talk, dysphemism, evil speaking, execration, filth, filthy language, foul language, impiety, imprecation, obscenity, profanation, profane swearing, profaneness, reprobation, ribaldry, sacrilege, sacrilegiousness, scatology, strong language, swearing, unblessedness, unhallowedness, unholiness, unparliamentary language, unregenerateness, unrepeatable expressions, unsacredness, unsanctitude, unsanctity, vile language, vulgar language